This course provides laboratory work that reinforces the material presented in ANTH 230. Emphasis is on laboratory exercises which may include genetic analysis, fossil identification, skeletal comparisons, forensics, computer simulations, and field observations. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate a basic understanding of the methods, techniques, and procedures used in biological anthropology.


Today physical and social scientists use the scientific method to explore natural phenomena, including observation, hypothesis development, measurement and data collection, experimentation, evaluation of evidence, and employ mathematical analysis in their work. Scientific theory constitutes the attempt to explain observable phenomena within a specifiable domain of investigation (chemistry, physics, psychology, anthropology). In a more limited sense a scientific theory is a set of statements permitting prediction and explanation of phenomena.

Science through application of the research paradigm known as the scientific method involves prediction not description. In this course, students enhance their understanding of the scientific method and the principles and concepts involved in the field of biological anthropology through laboratory exercises. Through their lab work, students learn to apply the scientific method and employ the scientific data, methodology, models, and skills employed in the discipline.

Concurrent registration in ANTH 230 Biological Anthropology or consent of instructor.

Germano, Michael P.

President of the University
Full Time
B.S. (1959), University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; B.A. (1961), Ambassador University; M.A. (2000), Texas A&M University-College Station; M.S. (1966), Ed.D. (1968), University of Southern California; J.D. (1980), University of La Verne.
Subject Matter: 
Anthropology/Archaeology, Professional Education, Theology

Dr. Germano brings over forty years of professional experience in educational leadership, teaching, corporate and business law, entrepreneurship, and institutional advancement initiatives to the LU presidency. He is a member of the California State Bar and was admitted to practice in the federal district courts of Southern California and East Texas. He taught business law at West Coast University (Los Angeles) and at Ambassador University (Big Sandy, Texas). Affiliated with Ambassador University (formerly Ambassador College) since 1959, he served as chief academic officer at two of its campuses. He left Ambassador as a professor emeritus in 1997 and completed a master's degree in archaeology/anthropology at Texas A&M in 2000. He then left retirement to serve several years as the chief academic officer at Haywood Community College at Clyde, North Carolina. He held responsibilities in AU's involvement in archaeological excavations at Jerusalem's south Temple Mount directed by Benjamin Mazar, the Jordan Umm el-Jimal Project directed by Bert de Vries, the Syria Mozan Expedition directed by Giorgio Buccellati and Marilyn Kelly-Buccellati, and the northern Israel Hazor Excavations in memory of Yigael Yadin directed by Amnon Ben-Tor. Ordained in 1983, Dr. Germano is an elder in the Living Church of God.

Course Credit: 
One (1) Semester Credit Hour
Instructional Objectives: 

On successful completion of this course, a student should be able to:

  1. Apply the scientific method to the analysis of lab activity results or materials;
  2. Demonstrate the principles of natural selection, inheritance and basic genetics;
  3. Identify bones and bone elements of the skeleton in humans and other species;
  4. Compare and evaluate non-human primate and human skeletal and dental features;
  5. Classify primates according to diagnostic features of taxonomic groups;
  6. Observe and evaluate primate behavior using anthropological practices;
  7. Demonstrate and apply anthropometric techniques;
  8. Identify key anatomical features of the hominids and other taxonomic groups;
  9. Analyze and compare skeletal materials to determine or infer species, age, sex, stature and behavior of the living organism; and
  10. Define key terms.
Required Texts: 

Walker-Pacheco, Suzane E. Exploring Physical Anthropology: A Lab Manual & Workbook. 2nd ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2010.

Course Calendar: 
Lab exercise Topics Readings


Scientific Method; Human Genetics and Natural Selection

Walker-Pacheco pp. 1-5; 17-24; 35-38; 41-42; 47-52;


Mitosis and Meiosis Principles of Inheritance

Walker-Pacheco pp. 65-72; 83-88; 93-94; 97-99


Population Genetics; Hardy-Weinberg  Equilibrium

Walker-Pacheco pp. 113-117


Human Osteology

Walker-Pacheco pp. 135-144


Primate Comparative Anatomy and Development

Walker-Pacheco pp. 217-221; 225-226; 279-285


Primate Taxonomy and Behavior

Walker-Pacheco pp. 235-236; 239-241; 245-247


Early Hominins and Bipedality

Walker-Pacheco pp. 303-305; 309-312; 315-316


Early Homo

Walker-Pacheco pp. 331-334


Later Homo and Neanderthals

Walker-Pacheco pp. 339-341


Bioarcheology, Forensics and Human Variation

Walker-Pacheco pp. 151-155; 161-164; 169-172

Course Requirements: 
  1. Due dates and extensions: Submit assignments on or before the date due. Students must complete the course by the last official dat of instruction as set forth in the academic calendar. 
  1. Icebreaker: To officially begin this course you must complete an Icebreaker assignment by which you introduce yourself to your classmates through posting a short autobiography on a course discussion forum. A student can earn 30 points by posting the Icebreaker assignment on time. These points could make the difference between an A or a B, or pasing or not passing this course.
  • The Icebreaker must be completed, including comments to other students' bios, not later than the eighth day of the semester.
  • Post your biography as a reply to the "Icebreaker" topic on the lesson "Welcome and Overview" discussion forum.
  • Please post your bio not later than the fifth day of the semester, so that your classmates have opportunity to welcome you to the course.
  • Please read and comment on at least two other bios by the due date in order to get credit.
  • Full credit for this assignment will only be given if all of the above requirements are met.
  1. Reading assignments: Reading assignments are integrated into the lesson pages at the course website. For a consolidated list, see the Course Calendar section above.
  1. Writing Assignments: All writing assignments in this course should follow the MLA style as set forth in Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide (14th edition) by Lester & Lester. Please cite your sources and used quotation marks where needed. To submit your work, select the appropriate assignment from the Assignments tab to go to the Assignment Submission webpage. Use the file attachment feature below the textbox to upload your WORD document so your instructor can have it handy for download, review, and grading. Please do not use the textbox to post your assignment: the textbox is used for student/instructor communication only, pertaining to the assignment.
    • Laboratory Exercises: There are ten (10) laboratory exercises in this course. Students are to read the instructions, conduct the exercies, and submit their documentation by the due date. Each exercise is worth 50 points (total =500 points)
    • What I Learned Essay. Write a short essay expounding on five (5) things that you appreciated learning or found of particular interest in this laboratory course. Be sure to explain why you arrived at these conclusions and cite scriptural references as appropriate. This assignment is worth 40 points.
  1. Quizzes and examinations: There are no quizzes or examinations in this course.
  2. Course Evaluation: By completing this assessment, you can earn 30 points toward your final grade.

A course grade will be determined based on the number of points a student has earned over the semester as follows:

Icebreaker Assignment (30 points)
Laboratory Exercises (10 each worth 50 points, totaling 500 points)
“What I Learned” Essay (40 points)
Course Evaluation (30 points)
TOTAL 600 points

Grades are in the traditional American style of an A, B, C, D, or F. In distance learning, we believe that the measure of mastery of course subject matter is completion of 80% of the objectives for a course. That means that we want students to earn at least 480 points in this course. If they do not do so then they have not achieved the level of the mastery we would like them to have.We want this course to be competency-based and so it is possible for the entire class to receive an A or a B. There is no artificial curving of scores in the assignment of grades. Mastery of the material is what one’s goal should be.

Grades, assigned by points, are as follows:

A 540-600 points
B 480-539 points
C 420-479 points
D 360-419 points
F Below 360 points

Students With Disabilities
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal anti-discrimination statute that provides comprehensive civil rights protection for persons with disabilities. Among other things, this legislation requires that all students with disabilities have a learning environment that provides for reasonable accommodation of their disabilities. Students having a disability requiring an accommodation should inform the instructor by email (on the “Course Info” page click on the instructor’s name and then select “Send Email”).

Technology Access
This course requires web access and the student has to have an established e-mail account. The Adobe Acrobat Reader is necessary to view documents that are PDF files. One can download the reader free at

Course Evaluation
Student input is welcome for improving this course. Making suggestions by e-mail is helpful. Our goal in this course is to facilitate the successful achievement of all instructional objectives by all students. At the end of the course students have the opportunity of assessing the course. We want to make e-learning courses as effective as we can. We may also ask some other questions concerning a student’s experience in distance learning to help us improve our program. We appreciate students letting us know how we can improve our products and services for them and other distance learners.

Withdrawing From or Dropping This Course
It is the responsibility of a student to drop a course if he or she cannot meet the requirements of the course. Any student who stops attending a course without officially withdrawing from it risks receiving a punitive grade for that course. Withdrawal requests may be conveyed in any manner to the course professor, Registrar, or Vice President of Academic Affairs. This action is sufficient for ensuring any refund owed you. Please note the following: If a student drops a course on or before the “Last day to withdraw from a course without a grade penalty” as published in the University Academic Calendar, even if his or her work is not of a passing grade, then a “W” is recorded. If a course is dropped after that date, but before the last 21 calendar days of the semester, then the instructor determines the grade. The faculty member will at this time record a grade of “W” if passing (not computed in GPA) or “WF” if failing (computed in GPA). Students who drop a course, yet remain in one or more other courses during the last 18 calendar days of the semester, will receive a grade of “WF.” Students who completely withdraw from the University at any time during the semester may be given a grade of “W” on all courses. If students do not initiate the withdrawal process, the instructor is required to initiate the administrative process and to record a grade of “W” or “WF” for the course depending on the date the faculty member drops the student from the course. Students who register for a course as an audit, but then withdraw will be assigned a grade of “W” for the course.